A Little-Known Story about a Movement, a Magazine, and the Computer's Arrival in Art: New Tendencies and Bit International, 1961-1973

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“This book documents a short but intense artistic experiment which took place in Yugoslavia fifty years ago, but whose impact has been felt far beyond that time and place. Ostensibly, the “little-known story” concerns the advent of computers in art and a movement which began in 1961 in Zagreb, Yugoslavia. It was through the activities of that movement, known as New Tendencies, and its supporting institution, the Galerija suvremene umjetnosti, that the “thinking machine” was adopted as an artistic tool and medium. Pursuing the idea of “art as visual research,” the New Tendencies movement proceeded along a path which led from Concrete and Constructivist art, Op art, and Kinetic art with its dynamic apparatuses to computer-generated graphics, film, and sculpture – from “programmed art” without computers to art generated or controlled by computers.

With their exhibitions and conferences on the theme of computers and visual research and the launch of the multilingual, groundbreaking magazine bit international in 1968, the New Tendencies transformed Zagreb, already one of the most vibrant artistic centers in Yugoslavia, into an international meeting place where artists, engineers, and scientists from both sides of the Iron Curtain gathered around the then-new technology. For a brief moment in time, Zagreb was the epicenter for exploring the aesthetic, scientific, and political potential of the computer.

This volume, edited by Margit Rosen, includes new essays by Jerko Denegri, Darko Fritz, Margit Rosen, and Peter Weibel; a great number of essays and texts that were first published in New Tendencies exhibition catalogs and bit international magazine; and historic documents. Over 650 black-and-white and color illustrations testify to the wide and diverse panorama of artworks that were presented in the exhibitions, and introduce the movement’s protagonists. Many of the historic photographs, translations, and documents are presented here for the first time. The book presents the long overdue history of the New Tendencies experiment and its impact on the art of the twentieth century.”

Source: ZKM Museumshop

For more information on this book see also its web site: http://www.new-tendencies.org/

Year: 2011
Place: Karlsruhe, Germany; Cambridge, Mass. USA
Publisher: ZKM; MIT press
ISBN: 978-0-262-51581-8
Edition: first
Pages: 576
Format: print b/w and color
People referred to: Manfred Mohr, Georg Nees, A. Michael Noll, Charles "Chuck" Csuri, Lillian F. Schwartz, Leslie Mezei, Karl Gerstner, Frieder Nake, Francois Morellet, Julije Knifer, Zdeněk Sýkora, Kurd Alsleben, Cord Passow, William Allan Fetter, Herbert W. Franke, Vjenceslav Richter, Ivan Picelj, Aleksandar Srnec, Ken Knowlton, Otto Beckmann, Oskar Beckmann, Max Bense, Alfred Graßl, Lloyd Sumner, Auro Lecci, herman de vries, Manuel Barbadillo, Hiroshi Kawano, Boris Kelemen, Alberto Biasi, Leon Harmon, Richard Beckmann, Marc Adrian, Jiří Valoch, Martin Krampen, Lothar Quinte, Bridget Riley, Kerry Strand, Duane Michael Palyka, Petar Milojević, Darel D. Eschbach, Joseph Hermann Stiegler, Abraham André Moles, Sol Le Witt, John Whitney Sr., Frank Joseph Malina, Gustav Metzger, Jonathan Benthall, Edward Zajec, Robert Mallary, Hans Haacke, Alan Sutcliffe, Almir Mavignier, Manfred R. Schroeder, Ruth Leavitt, Tomas Maldonado, Tomislav Mikulic, Vladimir Bonačić, Branimir Makanec, Jerko Denegri, Radoslav Putar, Gottfried Schlemmer, Želimir Koščević, Vera Horvat-Pintaric, Gordon Hyde, Leonardo Mosso, Laura Mosso, Josef Hlavacek, Gary Rice, Gui Bonsiepe, Matko Mestrovic, Toni Costa, Zoran Radovic, Doyle Cavin, Dee Hudson, Jane Moon, Klaus Staudt, Jürgen Kriz, Horst Wegscheider, Osvaldo Romberg, Frank Böttger, Hein Gravenhorst, Grace C. Hertlein, Sylvia Roubaud, Aron Warszawski, Rolf Wölk, Vilko Žiljak, Anton Zöttl, Soledad Sevilla, José Luis Alexanco, Waldemar Cordeiro, Giorgio Moscati, Manuel Quejido, Ludwig Rase, Miguel Angel Vidal, José María Yturralde, Gottfried Jaeger, Alessandro Carlini, Bernhard Schneider, Jan Baptist Bedaux, Jeroen Clausman, Arthur Veen, Alan M. France, Winfried Fischer, David R. Garrison, Jens Harke, Evan Harris Walker, Antonio Berni, Eduardo Mac Entyre, Luis Fernando Benedit, Ernesto Deira, Mario Mariño, Rogelio Polesello, Miljenko Horvat, Sergej Pavlin, Hervé Huitric, Monique Nahas, Jean-Claude Marquette, Jean-Claude Halgand, Joseph Ziegler, Thomas Michael Stephens, Harold Chase, Edvard Ravnikar, Miroslav Šutej, Vojin Bakic, Juraj Dobrovic, Sture Johannesson, Javier Seguí, Ana Seguí, Gerardo Delgado, Fanie Dupré, Jacques Dupré, José Luis Gómez Perales, Sten Kallin, Hans Köhler, Gerold Weiss
Artworks referred to: Gaussian-Quadratic, Sine Curve Man (1968), 4.1960, Matrizenmultiplikation Serie 33, Nude, Random War, random objectivation V68 - 66, Studies in Perception III - Gargoyle, Studies in Perception I - Telephone, Studies in Perception II - Gulls, Vertical-Horizontal No. 3, 13/9/65 Nr. 2 ("Klee"), Plastik I, Snail, A Sea Star, Boxes, Arclink, Work No.7, Olympiad, ram, TVC, Spasmo, quad III, Tower of Babel, Tower of Babel Transformed #2, Tower of Babel Shook, random objectivation V68 - 67, random objectivation V68 - 70, random objectivation V68 - 71, untitled, untitled, Achsenparalleler Polygonzug 25/2/65 Nr. 14, Achsenparalleler Polygonzug (25/2/65 Nr. 13), Spires of Contribution, Design, ct 6/68, ct 2/66, IRB 8-9 , Series of Pattern: Flow, permutation II, permutation III, Adfera, Untitled, Mouvnt XX, movimiento transformable, Mytoscope - Object for Manipulation, Politipo M, Farb Zeit Turm , Elektronische Grafik, Kubo-Octaeder, Serie R-A 1/5 66; Serie R+E-A 5/3 66; Serie R..., Lochblendenstrukturen - Programm 3.8.14, Metaarchitektonische Studien. Programmiertes ..., Portrait Albert Einstein, T-4, DIN. PR18, PLN 5, PLN 6, IR. PLNS. 0044. 7714. 7554. 7744, DIN. GF100, Compos Hobby Box, Compos 68 Series I, Compos 68 Series II, Sequential Views of John F. Kennedy Airport, Twenty -System Human Figure Walking, Eye II / "One Picture is Worth a Thousand Words", Elektronische Computergrafik Beckmann/Graßl 69, Programa Beabeá , programm aus I, 2, 3; computervariante 1/2, Work no. 5. Flow Pattern , Black-and-White Structure (Circles), Hypothetical output of the computer graphic p..., Random Movement (Completed Study # 1), Cycle Two, Flora NT , Idealized Brushstrokes, Landscape, Numeric Milling, TRAN 2, Untitled, Untitled, Untitled, Gente, Grau 1, The Field, Conversation C1, Aesthetic Theory of Colors – Parallel Compl..., Cube, Plan 2, Hommage à Khlebnikov, Surf III, LINED, Pascal's Limecon, Box Plot, Program No. 112, Site-Plan (program "super"), Interpolation und Rotation, Explosion geordneter Strukturen II , Kreisscharen I, Elemente unter Perspektiven II , Computer Paragraph, computer art. conditional growing, Secuencias, Untitled, Maternidad, Matrix I, Figura imposible (amarillo violeta), Ki, Colour Composition
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